Ruling on praying Jumu‘ah at home if there is no Sunni mosque
Question: can we do perform Friday prayers at home? If yes, how should we make - overtly or covertly? Thanks to you. We respect and love you.
Praise be to Allah.
The basic principle concerning the obligatory prayers is that they should be offered in the mosque. In the case of the Eid prayers, the Sunnah is to offer them in the musalla (Eid prayer place), as has been explained previously in fatwa no. 49050. It is not stipulated that Jumu‘ah prayer should be done in the mosque, according to the more correct view, as has been explained previously in fatwa no. 153872.
If there are no mosques of Ahl as-Sunnah in your country, then in that case you should examine the matter further:
If the mosques that are there belong to followers of innovation and whims and desires whose innovation has reached such level of disbelief that they have gone beyond the bounds of Islam, then undoubtedly it is not permissible to pray behind them, as has been explained in fatwa no. 20885. In that case the Muslims should pray in their houses and the like.
But if their innovation has not put them beyond the pale of Islam, then it is permissible to pray behind them if there are no mosques of Ahl as-Sunnah, who follow the true path. This has been explained in detail in fatwa no. 72441
Based on the above:
If the followers of innovation who are in charge of the mosques have not reached the level of disbelief and going beyond the bounds of Islam because of their innovation, then it is permissible for you to pray behind them, especially in Jumu‘ah and prayers in congregation.
But if their innovation has taken them to the level of disbelief, then it is not permissible for you to pray with them. In that case it is prescribed for you to pray Jumu‘ah in your houses.
We put this question to our shaykh, ‘Abd ar-Rahmaan al-Barraak (may Allah preserve him) and he said: They should pray Jumu‘ah in their houses. End quote.
Based on that, if you are able to pray it openly, that is what should be done in principle. In fact some of the scholars make that a condition of Jumu‘ah prayer being valid, as it says in al-Bahr ar-Raa’iq (2/162): A condition of it being valid is that it should be done openly, to the extent that if a governor were to close the doors of the fortress and lead his people and troops in Jumu‘ah prayer inside it, that would not be acceptable… But if he opens the doors of his palace and gives permission to the people to enter, it is permissible although it is makrooh, because he did not fulfil the rights of the Jaami‘ mosque. They gave as the reason for the former the fact that it is one of the symbols of Islam and one of the unique characteristics of the religion, so it should be established openly. End quote.
If you cannot do it openly for a legitimate shar‘i reason such as fear or persecution and the like, then it is permissible for you in that case to do it secretly, for Allah does not burden any soul with more than it can bear. However it should be noted that Jumu‘ah prayer is waived in the event of fear for one’s life or property.
And Allah knows best.