I recently went to a place where Juma`a is offered
Mu' meneen Brothers and Sisters,
As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you)
One of our brothers/sisters has asked this question:
As salaam alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatu.
I recently went to a place where Juma`a is offered before the time of Dhuhr. The khutbah and the prayers are finished before the time of Dhuhr even starts. Is there a requirement that Salat al-Juma`a start after the time of Dhuhr or can Salat al-Juma`a be offered at any time?
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Time of friday prayer
In the name of Allah, We praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. Whoever Allah guides none can misguide, and whoever He allows to fall astray, none can guide them aright. We bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allah Alone, and we bear witness that Muhammad (saws) is His slave-servant and the seal of His Messengers.
Amr ibn 'Abbas related that he said, "O Prophet of Allah (saws), inform me about the prayers." He said, "Pray the morning (fajr) prayer, and then abstain from prayer until sunrise and the sun has completely risen, for it rises between the horns of Shaitaan. That is when the unbelievers prostrate to it. Then pray, as your prayer will be witnessed and attended to until the shadow of a spear becomes less than its length. At that time stop praying, for at that time the hell-fire is fed with fuel. When the shade comes, you may pray (dhuhr), for your prayer will be witnessed and attended (to by Angels) until you pray the afternoon (asr) prayer. Then abstain from praying until the sun sets, for its sets between the horns of Shaitaan, and that is when the unbelievers make prostrations to it." (Related by Ahmad and Muslim.)
In light of the above absolutely clear guidance of the Messenger of Allah (saws), the times when it is absolutely forbidden for the believers to offer their prayers is when the sun is actually rising till it has completely risen, at exact mid-day until the sun moves a little to the west, and when the sun is actually setting till it has completely set.
Beloved brother, the time for the Friday Jumua prayer starts just after the sun has moved a little west from its meridian and ends when the time for asr prayer starts.
It is absolutely unimaginable and inconceivable that you witnessed a whole Jumua congregation including the sermon and the prayer that ended before the time for dhuhr! Beloved brother, it may be that in the place you normally worship, the imam offers his normal dhuhr prayers in congregation a little later than normal, therefore it is possible that you felt that the Jumua sermon and prayer was completed before the normal dhuhr time; thus giving rise to the misunderstanding.
Beloved brother, whatever the case, the time for Jumua prayer starts only after the sun has moved a little west from its meridian; and if one has prayed their Jumua before its start time, their prayer would not be valid in Shariah.
Allah says in the Holy Quran Chapter 4 Surah Nisaa verse 103:
Indeed the Salaat is a prescribed duty that should be performed by the believers at (their) appointed times.
Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allahs Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is of me alone. Allah Alone Knows Best and He is the Only Source of Strength.
Your brother and well wisher in Islam,