Missed Rakaahs in congregation
Mu' meneen Brothers and Sisters,
As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you)
One of our brothers/sisters has asked this question:
Assalam-o-eleikum wa Rahmat ullah wa Barakatahu, I am a little confused on the issue of completing the rakahs if one reaches the mosque for jama`at a little late. How should I complete the rakahs after the salam - (a) if I have missed two rakahs in a three or a four rakah prayer or (b) if I have missed three rakahs in a four rakah prayer. Is there a ruling on this. Can you please back this up with a hadith if possible? Jazakallah Khai
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Missed Rakaahs in congregation
In the name of Allah, We praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. Whoever Allah guides none can misguide, and whoever He allows to fall astray, none can guide them aright. We bear witness that there is no one (no idol, no person, no grave, no prophet, no imam, no dai, nobody!) worthy of worship but Allah Alone, and we bear witness that Muhammad(saws) is His slave-servant and the seal of His Messengers.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet (saws) said: "Whoever catches one rak'ah of the prayer has indeed caught the whole prayer." This is related by Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet (saws) said: "Whoever catches only one rak'ah of the salah, and then adds to it the other one (in Jumuah prayer), his prayer will be complete." This is related by an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and Ad-Daraqutni.
Your question: How should I complete the rakahs after the salam - (a) if I have missed two rakahs in a three or a four rakah prayer.
Case-A: If one misses two rakahs in a three rakah prayer (Magrib):
If one just catches one rakah of a three rakah prayer (Magrib), after the tasleems of the imam, he must stand and pray one rakah, sit, and recite the small tashahud; and then pray the third rakah, recite the full tashahud, and do the tasleems to finish his three rakah prayer.
Case-B: If one misses two rakahs in a four rakah prayer (Zuhr, Asr, Isha):
If one catches two rakahs of a four rakah prayer, after the tasleems of the imam, he must pray two more rakahs, recite the full tashahud, and do the tasleems to finish his four rakah prayer.
The basic law is, that whatever rakah the person joining the congregation late catches will be counted as his first rakahs, and then he completes the rakahs that he missed after the tasleems of the imam.
If one catches the rukoo function of the rakah prayed by the imam, it will be counted as praying that rakah.
Your comment: if I have missed three rakahs in a four rakah prayer.
If one catches one rakah in a four rakah prayer, after the tasleems of the imam, he should pray one rakah, sit, and pray the small tashahud; then get up again and pray two more rakahs, recite the full tashahud and complete his prayers with the tasleems.
Whatever written of Truth and benefit is only due to Allahs Assistance and Guidance, and whatever of error is of me. Allah Alone Knows Best and He is the Only Source of Strength.
Your Brother in Islam,