In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

 

Holy Quran Surah 13 Al Rad (The Thunder)

Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Quran in English Language by A.Yusuf Ali

1 Alif Lam Mim Ra. These are the Signs (or Verses) of the Book: that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord is the Truth; but most men believe not. 17981799

2 Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that ye can see; is firmly established on the throne (of authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His law)! each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate affairs explaining the Signs in detail that ye may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord. 1800180118021803

3 And it is He Who spread out the earth and set thereon mountains standing firm and (flowing) rivers: and fruit of every kind He made in pairs two and two: He draweth the Night as a veil o'er the Day. Behold verily in these things there are Signs for those who consider! 18041805

4 And in the earth are tracts (diverse though) neighboring and gardens of vines and fields sown with corn and palm trees growing out of single roots or otherwise: watered with the same water yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Behold verily in these things there are Signs for those who understand! 18061807

5 If thou dost marvel (at their want of faith) strange is their saying: "When we are (actually) dust shall we indeed then be in a creation renewed?" They are those who deny their Lord! They are those round whose necks will be yokes (of servitude): they will be Companions of the Fire who dwell therein (for aye)! 18081809

6 They ask thee to hasten on the evil in preference to the good: yet have come to pass before them (many) exemplary punishments! But verily thy Lord is full of forgiveness for mankind for their wrongdoing: and verily thy Lord is (also) strict in punishment. 1810

7 And the Unbelievers say! "Why is not a Sign sent down to him from his Lord?" But thou art truly a warner and to every people a guide. 18111812


Transliteration

Ayah 1

Yusuf Ali Alif Lam Mim Ra. These are the Signs (or Verses) of the Book: that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord is the Truth; but most men believe not.

Transliteration Alif La_m Ra_, tilka a_ya_tul kita_b(i), wallazi unzila ilaika mir rabbikal haqqu wa la_kinna aksaran na_si la_ yu'minu_n(a).

Ayah 2

Yusuf Ali Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that ye can see; is firmly established on the throne (of authority); He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His law)! each one runs (its course) for a term appointed. He doth regulate affairs explaining the Signs in detail that ye may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord.

Transliteration Alla_hul lazi rafa'as sama_wa_ti bi gairi 'amadin taraunaha_ summa-stawa_ 'alal 'arsyi wa sakhkharasy syamsa wal qamar(a), kulluy yajri li ajalim musamma_(n), yudabbirul amra yufassilul a_ya_ti la'allakum biliqa_'i rabbikum tu_qinu_n(a).

Ayah 3

Yusuf Ali And it is He Who spread out the earth and set thereon mountains standing firm and (flowing) rivers: and fruit of every kind He made in pairs two and two: He draweth the Night as a veil o'er the Day. Behold verily in these things there are Signs for those who consider!

Transliteration Wa huwal lazi maddal arda wa ja'ala fiha_ rawa_siya wa anha_ra_(n), wa min kullis samara_ti ja'ala fiha_ zaujaini-snaini yugsyil lailan naha_r(a), inna fi za_lika la a_ya_til liqaumiy yatafakkaru_n(a).

Ayah 4

Yusuf Ali And in the earth are tracts (diverse though) neighboring and gardens of vines and fields sown with corn and palm trees growing out of single roots or otherwise: watered with the same water yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Behold verily in these things there are Signs for those who understand!

Transliteration Wa fil ardi qita'um mutaja_wira_tuw wa janna_tum min a'na_biw wa zar'uw wa nakhilun sinwa_nuw wa gairu sinwa_niy yusqa_ bi ma_'iw wa_hid(in), wa nufaddilu ba'daha_ 'ala_ ba'din fil ukul(i), inna fi za_likala a_ya_til liqaumiy ya'qilu_n(a).

Ayah 5

Yusuf Ali If thou dost marvel (at their want of faith) strange is their saying: "When we are (actually) dust shall we indeed then be in a creation renewed?" They are those who deny their Lord! They are those round whose necks will be yokes (of servitude): they will be Companions of the Fire who dwell therein (for aye)!

Transliteration Wa in ta'jab fa 'ajabun qauluhum a'iza_ kunna_ tura_ban ainna_ lafi khalqin jadid(in), ula_'ikal lazina kafaru_ bi rabbihim, wa ula_'ikal agla_lu fi a'na_qihim, wa ula_'ika asha_bun na_r(i), hum fiha_ kha_lidu_n(a).

Ayah 6

Yusuf Ali They ask thee to hasten on the evil in preference to the good: yet have come to pass before them (many) exemplary punishments! But verily thy Lord is full of forgiveness for mankind for their wrongdoing: and verily thy Lord is (also) strict in punishment.

Transliteration Wa yasta'jilu_naka bis sayyi'ati qablal hasanati wa qad khalat min qablihimul masula_t(u), wa inna rabbaka lazu_ magfiratil lin na_si 'ala_ zulmihim, wa inna rabbaka lasyadidul 'iqa_b(i).

Ayah 7

Yusuf Ali And the Unbelievers say! "Why is not a Sign sent down to him from his Lord?" But thou art truly a warner and to every people a guide.

Transliteration Wa yaqu_lul lazina kafaru_ lau la_ unzila 'alaihi a_yatum mir rabbih(i), innama_ anta munziruw wa likulli qaumin ha_d(in).


Introduction

Name

This Surah takes its name from the word (ar-Ra'ad) (thunder) that occurs in v. 13. It is merely the symbolic name of the Surah and does not in any way mean that the Surah deals with the scientific problems connected with thunder.

Period of Revelation

The internal evidence (vv 27-31 and vv. 34-48) shows that this Surah was revealed in the last stage of the Mission of the Holy Prophet at Makkah and during the same period in which Surahs Yunus, Hud and Al-A'araf were sent down. The manner of speech indicates that a long time had passed since the Holy Prophet had been conveying the Message. On the one hand, his opponents had been contriving different devices to defeat him and his Mission, and, on the other, his followers had been expressing a desire that by showing a miracle the disbelievers might be brought to the Right Way. In answer, Allah impressed on the Believers that it is not His way to convert people by this method and that they should not lose heart, if He is giving the enemies of the Truth a rope long enough to hang themselves. Otherwise, He is able to show such signs as may bring the dead out of their graves and make them speak (v. 31), but even then these obdurate people will invent an excuse to explain this away. All this decisive evidence clearly proves that this Surah was revealed during the last stage of the Prophet's Mission at Makkah.

Central Theme

The first verse enunciates the main theme of this Surah, that is, "The Message of Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) is the very Truth, but it is the fault of the people that they are rejecting it." This is the pivot on which the whole Surah turns. This is why it has been shown over and over again in different ways that the basic components of the Message Tauhid, Resurrection and Prophethood are a reality: therefore they should believe sincerely in these for their own moral and spiritual good. They have been warned that they shall incur their own ruin if they reject them, for kufr by itself is sheer folly and ignorance. Moreover, the aim of the Surah is not merely to satisfy the minds but also to appeal to the hearts to accept the Faith. Therefore it does not merely put forward logical arguments in support of the truth of the Message and against the people's wrong notions, but at appropriate intervals it makes frequent use of sympathetic and earnest appeals to win over their hearts by warning them of the consequences of kufr and by holding out the happy rewards of Faith so that the foolish people should give up their obduracy.

Besides this, the objections of the opponents have been answered without any mention of them, and those doubts which are proving a hindrance in the way of the Message or were being created by the opponents have been removed. At the same time, the Believers; who had been passing through long and hard ordeal and were feeling tired, and waiting anxiously for Allah's succour, have been comforted and filled with hope and courage.


Notes

1798 For abbreviated Letters generally see Appendix 1. (13.1)

1799 Cf. x. 1, n. 1382. (13.1)

1800 Should we construe the clause "that ye can see" to refer to "pillars" or "to the heavens"? Either is admissible, but I prefer the former. The heavens are supported on no pillars that we can see. What we see is the blue vault of heaven, but there are invisible forces or conditions created by Allah, which should impress us with His power and glory. (13.2)

1801 Cf. x. 3, and n. 1386. We must not think that anything came into being by itself or carries out its functions by itself. Allah is the Creator from Whom everything has its life and being and through Whom everything is maintained and supported, even though fixed laws are established for its regulation and government. The "term appointed" limits the duration of their functioning: its ultimate return is to Allah, as its beginning proceeded from Allah. (13.2)

1802 Cf. x. 31, n. 1425. Where the laws of nature are fixed, and everything runs according to its appointed course, the government and regulation behind it is still that of Allah. Where there is limited free will as in man, yet the ultimate source of man's faculties is Allah. Allah cares for His creatures. He does not, as in the idea of polytheistic Greece, sit apart on Olympus, careless of His creatures. (13.2)

1803 One manifestation of His caring for His creatures, even where a limited amount of free-will is granted for their development, is that He is careful to explain His Signs both in nature and in express and detailed revelation through His Messengers, lest man should have any doubts whether he has to return ultimately to his Lord and account for all his actions during the "term appointed," when he was given some initiative by way of trial and preparation. If man attends carefully to the Signs, he should have no doubt whatever. (13.2)

1804 I think that this refers to sex in plants, and I see M.P. has translated accordingly. Plants like animals have their reproductive apparatus,-male stamens and female pistils. In most cases the same flower combines both stamens and pistils, but in some cases these organs are specialised in separate flowers, and in some cases, even in separate trees. The date-palm of Arabia and the Papaiya of India, are instances of fruit trees which are uni-sexual. (13.3)

1805 Cf. vii. 54 and n. 1032. The whole passage there may be compared with the whole passage here. Both their similarity and their variation show how closely reasoned each argument is, with expressions exactly appropriate to each occasion. (13.3)

1806 Does "growing out of single roots or otherwise" qualify "palm trees" or "vines" and "corn" as well? The former construction is adopted by the classical Commentators: in which case the reference is to the fact either that two or more palm trees occasionally grow out of a single root, or that palm trees grow sometimes as odd trees and sometimes in great thick clusters. If the latter construction is adopted, the reference would be to the fact that date-palm (and palms generally) and some other plants arise out of a single tap-root, while the majority of trees arise out of a net-work of roots that spread out extensively. Here is adaptation to soil and water conditions,-another Sign or wonder of Creation. (13.4)

1807 The date-palm, the crops of food-grains, and the grape-vine are all fed by the same kind of water, yet how different the harvests which they yield! And that applies to all vegetation. The fruit or eatable produce may vary in shape, size, colour, flavour, etc., in endless variety. (13.4)

1808 After seeing the Signs in nature and the Signs in revelation, it is indeed strange that people should deny their Creator. But if they admit the Signs of the Creator, Who works marvels before their very eyes every day, why should they doubt that when they are reduced to dust, they can be raised up again? If one creation is possible, what difficulty can there be in accepting a renewed creation? It becomes then a question of an obstinate and rebellious will, for which the punishment is described. (13.5)

1809 Aglal: yokes (of servitude): Cf. vii. 157 and n. 1128. The punishment may be conceived of in two stages: immediately, yokes of servitude to superstition, falsehood, etc., as against the freedom in Faith; and finally, the Fire which burns the very soul. (13.5)

1810 The Unbelievers by way of a taunt say: "If there is a punishment, let us see it come down now." The answer to it is threefold. (1) Why do you want to see the punishment rather than the mercy of Allah? Which is better? (2) Have you not heard in history of terrible punishments for evil? And have you not before your very eyes seen examples of wickedness brought to book? (3) Allah works not only in justice and punishment, but also in mercy and forgiveness, and mercy and forgiveness come first. (13.6)

1811 After all the Signs that have just been mentioned it is mere fractiousness to say, "Bring down a Sign." Al-Mustafa brought Signs and credentials as other Prophets did, and like them, refused to satisfy mere idle curiosity. (13.7)

1812 The last sentence of this verse has usually been interpreted to mean that the Prophet's function was merely to warn, and that guidance was sent by Allah to every nation through its Prophets. I think the following interpretation is equally possible: 'it is itself a Sign that Al-Mustafa should warn and preach and produce the Qur-an, and the guidance which he brings is universal guidance, as from Allah. (13.7)


Holy Quran Surah 13 Al Rad (The Thunder)

Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Quran in English Language by A.Yusuf Ali

8 Allah doth know what every female (womb) doth bear by how much the wombs fall short (of their time or number) or do exceed. Every single thing is before His sight in (due) proportion. 1813

9 He knoweth the Unseen and that which is open: He is the Great the Most High. 1814

10 It is the same (to Him) whether any of you conceal his speech or declare it openly; whether he lie hid by night or walk freely by day. 1815

11 For each (such person) there are (angels) in succession before and behind him: they guard him by command of Allah. Verily never will Allah change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (with their own souls). But when (once) Allah willeth a people's punishment there can be no turning it back nor will they find besides Him any to protect. 18161817

12 It is He Who doth show you the lightning by way both of fear and of hope: it is He Who doth raise up the clouds heavy with (fertilizing) rain! 1818

13 Nay thunder repeateth His praises and so do the angels with awe: He flingeth the loud-voiced thunderbolts and therewith He striketh whomsoever He will... Yet these (are the men) who (dare to) dispute about Allah with the strength of His power (supreme)! 181918201821

14 For Him (alone) is prayer in Truth: any others that they call upon besides Him hear them no more than if they were to stretch forth their hands for water to reach their mouth but it reaches them not: for the prayer of those without Faith is nothing but (futile) wandering (in the mind). 18221823

15 Whatever beings there are in the heavens and the earth do prostrate themselves to Allah (acknowledging subjection) with good will or in spite of themselves: so do their shadows in the mornings and evenings. 1824182518261827

16 Say: "Who is the Lord and Sustainer of the heavens and the earth?" Say: "It is Allah." Say: "Do ye then take (for worship) protectors other than Him such as have no power either for good or for harm to themselves?" Say: "Are the blind equal with those who see? Or the depths of darkness equal with Light?" Or do they assign to Allah partners who have created (anything) as He has created so that the creation seemed to them similar? Say: "Allah is the Creator of all things: He is the One the Supreme and Irresistible." 182818291830

17 He sends down water from the skies and the channels flow each according to its measure: but the torrent bears away the foam that mounts up to the surface. Even so from that (ore) which they heat in the fire to make ornaments or utensils therewith there is a scum likewise. Thus doth Allah (by parables) show forth Truth and Vanity: for the scum disappears like froth cast out; while that which is for the good of mankind remains on the earth. Thus doth Allah set forth parables. 18311832

18 For those who respond to their Lord are (all) good things. But those who respond not to Him even if they had all that is in the heavens and on earth and as much more (in vain) would they offer it for ransom. For them will the reckoning be terrible: their abode will be Hell what a bed of misery! 1833


Transliteration

Ayah 8

Yusuf Ali Allah doth know what every female (womb) doth bear by how much the wombs fall short (of their time or number) or do exceed. Every single thing is before His sight in (due) proportion.

Transliteration Alla_hu ya'lamu ma_ tahmilu kullu unsa_ wa ma_ tagidul arha_mu wa ma_ tazda_d(u), wa kullu syai'in bi miqda_r(in).

Ayah 9

Yusuf Ali He knoweth the Unseen and that which is open: He is the Great the Most High.

Transliteration 'A_limul gaibi wasy syaha_datil kabirul muta'a_l(i).

Ayah 10

Yusuf Ali It is the same (to Him) whether any of you conceal his speech or declare it openly; whether he lie hid by night or walk freely by day.

Transliteration Sawa_'um minkum man asarral qaula wa man jahara bihi wa man huwa mustakhfim bil laili wa sa_ribum bin naha_r(i).

Ayah 11

Yusuf Ali For each (such person) there are (angels) in succession before and behind him: they guard him by command of Allah. Verily never will Allah change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (with their own souls). But when (once) Allah willeth a people's punishment there can be no turning it back nor will they find besides Him any to protect.

Transliteration Lahu_ mu'aqqiba_tum mim baini yadaihi wa min khalfihi yahfazu_nahu_ min amrilla_h(i), innalla_ha la_ yugayyiru ma_ bi qaumin hatta_ yugayyiru_ ma_ bi anfusihim, wa iza_ ara_dalla_hu bi qaumin sa_'an fala_ maradda lah(u_), wa ma_ lahum min du_nihi miw wa_l(in).

Ayah 12

Yusuf Ali It is He Who doth show you the lightning by way both of fear and of hope: it is He Who doth raise up the clouds heavy with (fertilizing) rain!

Transliteration Huwal lazi yurikumul barqa khaufaw wa tama'aw wa yunsyi'us saha_bas siqa_l(a).

Ayah 13

Yusuf Ali Nay thunder repeateth His praises and so do the angels with awe: He flingeth the loud-voiced thunderbolts and therewith He striketh whomsoever He will... Yet these (are the men) who (dare to) dispute about Allah with the strength of His power (supreme)!

Transliteration Wa yusabbihur ra'du bi hamdihi wal mala_'ikatu min khifatih(i), wa yursilus sawa_'iqa fa yusibu biha_ may yasya_'u wa hum yuja_dilu_na filla_h(i), wa huwa syadidul miha_l(i).

Ayah 14

Yusuf Ali For Him (alone) is prayer in Truth: any others that they call upon besides Him hear them no more than if they were to stretch forth their hands for water to reach their mouth but it reaches them not: for the prayer of those without Faith is nothing but (futile) wandering (in the mind).

Transliteration Lahu_ da'watul haqq(i), wallazina yad'u_na min du_nihi la_ yastajibu_na lahum bi syai'in illa_ ka ba_siti kaffaihi ilal ma_'i liyabluga fa_hu wa ma_ huwa bi ba_ligih(i), wa ma_ du'a_'ul ka_firina illa_ fi dala_l(in).

Ayah 15

Yusuf Ali Whatever beings there are in the heavens and the earth do prostrate themselves to Allah (acknowledging subjection) with good will or in spite of themselves: so do their shadows in the mornings and evenings.

Transliteration Wa lilla_hi yasjudu man fis sama_wa_ti wal ardi tau'aw wa karhaw wa zila_luhum bil guduwwi wala a_sa_l(i).

Ayah 16

Yusuf Ali Say: "Who is the Lord and Sustainer of the heavens and the earth?" Say: "It is Allah." Say: "Do ye then take (for worship) protectors other than Him such as have no power either for good or for harm to themselves?" Say: "Are the blind equal with those who see? Or the depths of darkness equal with Light?" Or do they assign to Allah partners who have created (anything) as He has created so that the creation seemed to them similar? Say: "Allah is the Creator of all things: He is the One the Supreme and Irresistible."

Transliteration Qul mar rabbus sama_wa_ti wal ard(i), qulilla_h(u), qul afa-ttakhaztum min du_nihi auliya_'a la_ yamliku_na li anfusihim naf'aw wa la_ darra_(n), qul hal yastawil a'ma_ wal basir(u), am hal tastawiz zuluma_tu wan nu_r(u), am ja'ala_ lilla_hi syuraka_'a khalaqa_ ka khalqihi fa tasya_bahal khalqu 'alaihim, qulilla_hu kha_liqu kulli syai'iw wa huwal wa_hidul qahha_r(u).

Ayah 17

Yusuf Ali He sends down water from the skies and the channels flow each according to its measure: but the torrent bears away the foam that mounts up to the surface. Even so from that (ore) which they heat in the fire to make ornaments or utensils therewith there is a scum likewise. Thus doth Allah (by parables) show forth Truth and Vanity: for the scum disappears like froth cast out; while that which is for the good of mankind remains on the earth. Thus doth Allah set forth parables.

Transliteration Anzala minas sama_'i ma_'an fa sa_lat audiyatum bi qadariha_ fa-htamalas sailu zabadar ra_biya_(n), wa mimma_ yu_qidu_na 'alaihi fin na_ri-btiga_'a hilyatin au mata_'in zabadum misluh(u_), kaza_lika yadribull_hul haqqa wal ba_til(a), fa ammaz zabadu fa yazhabu jufa_'a(n), wa amma_ ma_ yanfa'un na_sa fa yamkusu fil ard(i), kaza_lika yadribulla_hul amsa_l(a).

Ayah 18

Yusuf Ali For those who respond to their Lord are (all) good things. But those who respond not to Him even if they had all that is in the heavens and on earth and as much more (in vain) would they offer it for ransom. For them will the reckoning be terrible: their abode will be Hell what a bed of misery!

Transliteration Lillazina-staja_bu_ lirabbihimul husna_, wallazina lam yastajibu_ lahu_ lau anna lahum ma_ fil ardi jami'aw wa mislahu_ ma'ahu_ la-ftadau bih(i), ula_'ika lahum su_'ul hisa_b(i), wa ma'wa_hum jahannam(u), wa bi'sal miha_d(u).


Notes

1813 The female womb is just an example, a type, of extreme secrecy. Not even the female herself knows what is in the womb,-whether it is a male young or a female young, whether it is one or more, whether it is to be born short of the standard time or to exceed the standard time. But the most hidden and apparently unknowable things are clear to Allah's knowledge: there is no mere chance; all things are regulated by Allah in just measure and proportion. The general proposition comes in the last sentence: "every single thing is with Him in (due) proportion." (13.8)

1814 A verse of matchless rhythm in Arabic. (13.9)

1815 Our most hidden thoughts and motives are known to Him at all times. (13.10)

1816 See last verse. Every person, whether he conceals or reveals his thoughts, whether he skulks in darkness or goes about by day,-all are under Allah's watch and ward. His grace encompasses everyone, and again and again protects him, if he will only take the protection, from harm and evil. If in his folly he thinks he can secretly take some pleasure or profit, he is wrong, for recording angels record all his thoughts and deeds. (13.11)

1817 Allah is not intent on punishment. He created man virtuous and pure; he gave him intelligence and knowledge; he surrounded him with all sorts of instruments of His grace and mercy. If, in spite of all this, man distorts his own will and goes against Allah's Will, yet is Allah's forgiveness open to him if he will take it. It is only when he has made his own sight blind and changed his own nature or soul away from the beautiful mould in which Allah formed it, that Allah's Wrath will descend on him and the favourable position in which Allah placed him will be changed. When once the punishment comes, there is no turning it back. None of the things which he relied upon- other than Allah-can possibly protect him. (13.11)

1818 Here then is the climax to the answer of the sarcastic challenge of the Unbelievers for punishment, in language of great sublimity. Why look to evil rather than to good?-to punishment rather than to mercy?-to the fear in the force and fire of the lightning rather than to the hope of good and abundant crops in the rain which will come behind the lightning clouds? (13.12)

1819 Nay, thunder itself, which may frighten you, is but a tame and beneficent force before Him, declaring His praises, like the rest of creation. THUNDER thus aptly gives the name to this Sura of contrasts, where what we may think terrible is shown to be really a submissive instrument of good in Allah's hands. (13.13)

1820 And the angels, whom we think to be beautiful creatures of power and glory nearest to Allah, yet feel reverence and awe even as they praise His holy name. (13.13)

1821 Who is puny man, to call Allah in question? Cf. some variations on this theme in the Book of Job, e.g. chapters 38 to 41. (13.13)

1822 Haqq=truth; right; what is due, befitting, proper. All these meanings are to be understood here. If we worship anything other than Allah (whether it is idols, stars, powers of nature, spirits, or deified men, or Self, or Power, or Wealth, Science or Art, Talent or Intellect), our worship is both foolish and futile. (13.14)

1823 Without Faith, it is obvious that prayer or worship has no meaning whatever. It is but an aberration of the mind. But there is a deeper meaning. You may have false faith, as in superstitions or in worshipping things other than Allah, as explained in the last note. In that case, too, you are pursuing mere phantoms of the mind. When you come to examine it, it is mere imbecility or futility. Worship and prayer are justified only to Allah, the One True God. (13.14)

1824 Notice that the original of what I have translated "whatever being" is the personal pronoun man, not ma. This then refers to beings with a personality, e.g., angels, spirits, human beings, and possibly other things of objective (not necessarily material) existence, as contrasted with their Shadows or Simulacra or Appearances, or Phantasms, mentioned at the end of the verse. Both these Beings and their Shadows are subject to the Will of Allah. See notes 1825 and 1827. (13.15)

1825 "Prostrate themselves": the posture means that they recognise their subjection to Allah's Will and Law, whether they wish it or not. (13.15)

1826 "In spite of themselves": Satan and Evil. They would like to get away from the control of the All-good Allah, but they cannot, and they have to acknowledge His supremacy and lordship over them. (13.15)

1827 Even the Shadows-creations of the Imagination, or projections from other things and dependent on the other things for their existence, as shadows are to substance- even such shadows are subject to Allah's Laws and Will, and cannot arise or have any effect on our minds except by His permission. The Shadows are longest and therefore most prominent when the sun is level, and tend to disappear as the sun approaches the zenith. But even when they are longest and most prominent, they are still subject to Allah's Will and Law. (13.15)

1828 The meaning of "Rabb" is explained in n. 20, to i. 2. (13.16)

1829 Cf. v. 76. (13.16)

1830 This verse may be analysed into six parts, each two parts going together like question and answer. Each except the fifth part is introduced by the word "Say", which is equivalent in old Arabic to inverted commas. The fifth part, "or do they assign .... similar?" is not introduced by "Say", because it is in the indirect form. (1) Who is the Lord and Sustainer of the Worlds? It is Allah, (2) And yet you worship other gods? No, no one can be equal to Him, any more than darkness is equal to light. (3) Your other gods have created nothing by which you can be misled? No indeed; He is the only Creator, the One and Supreme. (13.16)

1831 This verse is full of parables. (1) It is Allah Who sends rain and sends it to all. See how it flows in different channels according to their capacities. Some are sluggish-, some have a swift current. Some form great rivers and irrigate wide tracts of country; some are clear crystal streams, perhaps in hilly tracts, with beds of clean pebbles which you can see through the water. Some produce delicious edible fish; and some are infested by crocodiles or injurious monsters. And there are degrees and degrees among brooks, streams, lakes, rivers, and seas. So with the rain of Allah's mercy and the knowledge and wisdom and guidance which He sends. All can receive it. Different ones will respond according to their capacities. (2) In the physical world, water is pure and beneficial. But froth and scum will gather according to local conditions. As the floods will carry off the scum and purify the water, so will the flood of Allah's spiritual mercy carry away our spiritual scum and purify the water. (3) The froth may make a greater show on the surface, but it will not last. So will there be frothy knowledge, which will disappear, but Allah's Truth will endure. (13.17)

1832 In continuation of the last note, the fourth parable is that of metal ores: (4) the ore is full of baser admixture, but the fire will separate the gold from the dross for ornaments, or (5) some metal of household utility, with which you make every-day utensils, which the fire will separate from admixtures which you do not want. So the fire of Allah's test, either by adversity or by affluence, will search out the true metal in us and reject the dross. It will show us what is valuable or what is useful, all sorts of scum and vanity which we collect and miscall knowledge. (13.17)

1833 Cf. iii. 91 and x. 54. (13.18)


Holy Quran Surah 13 Al Rad (The Thunder)

Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Quran in English Language by A.Yusuf Ali

19 Is then one who doth know that that which hath been revealed unto these from thy Lord is the Truth like one who is blind? It is those who are endued with understanding that receive admonition 1834

20 Those who fulfil the Covenant of Allah and fail not in their plighted word;

21 Those who join together those things which Allah hath commanded to be joined hold their Lord in awe and fear the terrible reckoning; 1835

22 Those who patiently persevere seeking the countenance their Lord; establish regular prayers; spend out of (the gifts) We have bestowed for their sustenance secretly and openly; and turn off Evil with good: for such there is the final attainment of the (Eternal) Home 1836

23 Gardens of perpetual bliss: they shall enter there as well as the righteous among their fathers their spouses and their offspring: and angels shall enter unto them from every gate (with the salutation): 1837

24 "Peace unto you for that ye persevered in patience! Now how excellent is the final Home!"

25 But those who break the Covenant of Allah after having plighted their word thereto and cut asunder those things which Allah has commanded to be joined and work mischief in the land on them is the Curse; for them is the terrible Home! 18381839

26 Allah doth enlarge or grant by (strict) measure the Sustenance (which He giveth) to whom so He pleaseth. (The worldly) rejoice in the life of this world: but the life of this world is but little comfort in the Hereafter. 18401841


Transliteration

Ayah 19

Yusuf Ali Is then one who doth know that that which hath been revealed unto these from thy Lord is the Truth like one who is blind? It is those who are endued with understanding that receive admonition

Transliteration Afamay ya'lamu annama_ unzila ilaika mir rabbikal haqqu ka man huwa a'ma_, innama_ yatazakkaru ulul alba_b(i),

Ayah 20

Yusuf Ali Those who fulfil the Covenant of Allah and fail not in their plighted word;

Transliteration Allazina yu_fu_na bi 'ahdilla_hi wa la_ yanqudu_nal misa_q(a),

Ayah 21

Yusuf Ali Those who join together those things which Allah hath commanded to be joined hold their Lord in awe and fear the terrible reckoning;

Transliteration Wallazina yasilu_na ma_ amaralla_hu bihi ay yu_sala wa yakhsyauna rabbahum wa yakha_fu_na su_'al hisa_b(i).

Ayah 22

Yusuf Ali Those who patiently persevere seeking the countenance their Lord; establish regular prayers; spend out of (the gifts) We have bestowed for their sustenance secretly and openly; and turn off Evil with good: for such there is the final attainment of the (Eternal) Home

Transliteration Wallazina sabaru-btiga_'a wajhi rabbihim wa aqa_mus sala_ta wa anfaqu_ mimma_ razaqna_hum sirraw wa 'ala_niyataw wa yadra'u_na bil hasana_tis sayyi'ata ula_'ika lahum 'uqbad da_r(i),

Ayah 23

Yusuf Ali Gardens of perpetual bliss: they shall enter there as well as the righteous among their fathers their spouses and their offspring: and angels shall enter unto them from every gate (with the salutation):

Transliteration Janna_tu 'adniy yadkhulu_naha_ wa man salaha mina a_ba_'ihim wa azwa_jihim wa zurriyya_tihim wal mala_'ikatu yadkhulu_na 'alaihim min kulli ba_b(in).

Ayah 24

Yusuf Ali "Peace unto you for that ye persevered in patience! Now how excellent is the final Home!"

Transliteration Sala_mun 'alaikum bima_ sabartum fa ni'ma 'uqbad da_r(i).

Ayah 25

Yusuf Ali But those who break the Covenant of Allah after having plighted their word thereto and cut asunder those things which Allah has commanded to be joined and work mischief in the land on them is the Curse; for them is the terrible Home!

Transliteration Wallazina yanquduu_na 'ahdalla_hi mim ba'di misa_qihi wa yaqta'u_na ma_ amaralla_hu bihi ay yu_sala wa yufsidu_na fil ard(i), ula_'ika lahumul la'natu wa lahum su_'ud da_r(i).

Ayah 26

Yusuf Ali Allah doth enlarge or grant by (strict) measure the Sustenance (which He giveth) to whom so He pleaseth. (The worldly) rejoice in the life of this world: but the life of this world is but little comfort in the Hereafter.

Transliteration Alla_hu yabsutur rizqa limay yasya_'u wa yaqdir(u), wa farihu_ bil haya_tid dunyu_, wa mal haya_tud dunya_ fil a_khirati illa_ mata_'(un).


Notes

1834 In this section the contrast between Faith and Righteousness on the one hand and Infidelity and Evil on the other is set out. The righteous man is known as one who (1) receives admonition; (2) is true to his covenants; (3) follows the universal Religion of Faith and Practice joined together; (4) is patient and persevering in seeking Allah; and in practical matters he is known to be; (5) regular in prayer; (6) generous in true charity, whether open or secret; and (7) not revengeful, but anxious to turn off evil with good, thus breaking the chain of evil which tends to perpetuate itself. (13.19)

1835 That is, join faith with practice, love of God with love of man, and respect for all Prophets alike, i.e., follow the right Religion, and not odd bits of it. (13.21)

1836 Their journey in this life was at best a sojourn. The Heaven is their eternal Home, which is further prefigured in the two following verses. (13.22)

1837 The relationships of this life are temporal, but love in righteousness is eternal. (13.23)

1838 This is the opposite of the things explained in xiii. 21 above, n. 1835. (13.25)

1839 This is in contrast to the state of the blessed, described in xiii. 22-24 above, The Curse is the opposite of the Bliss, and the Terrible Home is the opposite of the Eternal Home, the Gardens of perpetual bliss. (13.25)

1840 Allah, the Sustainer and Cherisher of all His creatures, gives sustenance to all. To some He grants it in abundance; to others He gives it in strict measure. No one can question Him, for His Will is supreme, and it is the measure of all good. (13.26)

1841 Cf. ix. 38. The meaning here may also be: This present life is just a furniture, a convenience, a stepping stone, a probation, for the life to come. In itself it is less important than the Hereafter. (13.26)


Holy Quran Surah 13 Al Rad (The Thunder)

Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Quran in English Language by A.Yusuf Ali

27 The Unbelievers say: "Why is not a Sign sent down to him from his Lord?" Say: "Truly Allah leaveth to stray whom He will; but He guideth to Himself those who turn to Him in penitence 1842

28 "Those who believe and whose hearts find satisfaction in the remembrance of Allah: for without doubt in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find satisfaction. 1843

29 "For those who believe and work righteousness is (every) blessedness and a beautiful place of (final) return." 1844

30 Thus have We sent thee amongst a People before whom (long since) have (other) Peoples (gone and) passed away; in order that thou mightest rehearse unto them what We send down unto thee by inspiration; yet do they reject (Him) the Most Gracious! Say: "He is my Lord! There is no god but He! On Him is my trust and to Him do I turn!" 18451846

31 If there were a Qur'an with which mountains were moved or the earth were cloven asunder or the dead were made to speak (this would be the one!) But truly the Command is with Allah in things! Do not the Believers know that had Allah (so) willed He could have guided all mankind (to the Right)? But the Unbelievers never will disaster cease to seize them for their (ill) deeds or to settle close to their homes until the Promise of Allah come to pass for verily Allah will not fail in His promise. 18471848


Transliteration

Ayah 27

Yusuf Ali The Unbelievers say: "Why is not a Sign sent down to him from his Lord?" Say: "Truly Allah leaveth to stray whom He will; but He guideth to Himself those who turn to Him in penitence

Transliteration Wa yaqu_lul lazina kafaru_ lau la_ unzila 'alaihi a_yatum mir rabbih(i), qul innallu_ha yudillu may yasya_'u wa yahdi ilaihi man ana_b(a).

Ayah 28

Yusuf Ali "Those who believe and whose hearts find satisfaction in the remembrance of Allah: for without doubt in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find satisfaction.

Transliteration Allazina a_manu_ wa tatma'innu qulu_buhum bi zikrilla_h(i), ala_ bi zikrilla_hi tatma'innul qulu_b(u).

Ayah 29

Yusuf Ali "For those who believe and work righteousness is (every) blessedness and a beautiful place of (final) return."

Transliteration Allazina a_manu_ wa 'amilus sa_liha_ti tu_ba_ lahum wa husnu ma'a_b(in).

Ayah 30

Yusuf Ali Thus have We sent thee amongst a People before whom (long since) have (other) Peoples (gone and) passed away; in order that thou mightest rehearse unto them what We send down unto thee by inspiration; yet do they reject (Him) the Most Gracious! Say: "He is my Lord! There is no god but He! On Him is my trust and to Him do I turn!"

Transliteration Kaza_lika arsalna_ka fi ummatin qad khalat min qabliha_ umamul litatluwa 'alaihimul lazi auhaina_ ilaika wa hum yakfuru_na bir rahma_n(i), qul huwa rabbi la_ ila_ha illa_ huw(a), 'alaihi tawakkaltu wa ilaihi mata_b(i).

Ayah 31

Yusuf Ali If there were a Qur'an with which mountains were moved or the earth were cloven asunder or the dead were made to speak (this would be the one!) But truly the Command is with Allah in things! Do not the Believers know that had Allah (so) willed He could have guided all mankind (to the Right)? But the Unbelievers never will disaster cease to seize them for their (ill) deeds or to settle close to their homes until the Promise of Allah come to pass for verily Allah will not fail in His promise.

Transliteration Wa lau anna qur'a_nan suyyirat bihil jiba_lu au qutti'at bihil ardu au kullima bihil mauta_, bal lilla_hil amru jami'a_(n), afalam yay'asil lazina a_manu_ allau yasya_'ulla_hu lahadan na_sa jami'a_(n), wa la_ yaza_lul lazina kafaru_ tusibuhum bima_ sana'u_ qa_ri'atun au tahullu qaribam min da_rihim hatta_ ya'tiya wa'dulla_h(i), innalla_ha la_ yukhliful mi'a_d(a).


Notes

1842 The question is repeated from xiii. 7 above; for the line of reasoning there suggested in answer is now completed, and another line of reasoning is now taken up. Allah provides every guidance for those who turn to Him in penitence, but He will leave those to wander astray who deliberately close their eyes and their hearts to His grace and the comfort that comes from remembering Him and celebrating His praises. (13.27)

1843 The Sign or Miracle is not something external: it is something internal, something in your mind, heart, and soul. It depends on your inner spiritual experience. If you turn to Allah, that light, that experience, will come. If you do not, Allah will not force you. (13.28)

1844 "Blessedness": Tuba: an internal state of satisfaction, an inward joy which is difficult to describe in words, but which reflects itself in the life of the good man, through good and ill fortune, through good report and evil. And then, there is always the final goal to which his eyes are turned, the beautiful Home of rest in the Hereafter, after this life's struggles are over. That goal is Allah Himself. (13.29)

1845 Our Prophet came later in time than other Prophets, to complete their Message and universalise Religion. And certainly it is after his age that the process of the unification of the world began. That process is not complete yet, but is proceeding apace. (13.30)

1846 Faith tells us that no amount of opposition from Unbelievers can ever stop Allah's Plan. (13.30)

1847 Everything is possible and in Allah's power. His Plan is beneficient and all-embracing. But it is not for His creatures to dictate to Him, or demand what He should do, or how He should do it. The Command is with Allah in all things. The Believers know His omnipotence, and they also know that He will order His world for the best. (13.31)

1848 Let not the Unbelievers think that if they seem to prosper for a time, that is the end of the matter. They are warned about three things. (1) their ill deeds must carry evil consequences for them all the time, though they may not perceive them for a certain time. (2) Their homes, their places of resort, the circles in which they move, will also be haunted by their ill deeds and their consequences. For evil makes a complex of its environment. The walls of Jericho, when they fall, must bring down all Jericho in its ruins. (3) The ultimate Disaster, the final Reckoning, must come, for Allah never fails in His promise. True values must eventually be restored: the good to the good, and the evil to the evil, The Commentators draw illustrations from the life of the Prophet, his exile from Makkah, and his restoration. A similar miracle works in all history. But the Command is with Allah. (13.31)


Holy Quran Surah 13 Al Rad (The Thunder)

Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Quran in English Language by A.Yusuf Ali

32 Mocked were (many) Apostles before thee: but I granted respite to the Unbelievers and finally I punished them; then how (terrible) was My requital! 18491850

33 Is then He Who standeth over every soul (and knoweth) all that it doth (like any others)? And yet they ascribe partners to Allah. Say: "But name them! Is it that ye will inform Him of something He knoweth not on earth or is it (just) a show of words?" Nay! to those who believe not their pretence seems pleasing but they are kept back (thereby) from the Path: and those whom Allah leaves to stray no one can guide. 18511852

34 For them is a Penalty in the life of this world but harder truly is the Penalty of the Hereafter; and defender have they none against Allah. 1853

35 The parable of the Garden which the righteous are promised! beneath it flow rivers: perpetual is the enjoyment thereof and the shade therein: such is the End of the Righteous; and the End of Unbelievers is the Fire. 185418551856

36 Those to whom We have given the Book rejoice at what hath been revealed unto thee: but there are among the clans those who reject a part thereof. Say: "I am commanded to worship Allah and not to join partners with Him. Unto Him do I call and unto Him is my return." 18571858

37 Thus have We revealed it to be a judgment of authority in Arabic. Wert thou to follow their (vain) desires after the knowledge which hath reached thee then wouldst thou find neither protector nor defender against Allah. 18591860


Transliteration

Ayah 32

Yusuf Ali Mocked were (many) Apostles before thee: but I granted respite to the Unbelievers and finally I punished them; then how (terrible) was My requital!

Transliteration Wa laqad-istuhzi'a bi rusulim min qablika fa amlaitu lillazina kafaru_ summa akhaztuhum fa kaifa ka_na 'iqa_b(i).

Ayah 33

Yusuf Ali Is then He Who standeth over every soul (and knoweth) all that it doth (like any others)? And yet they ascribe partners to Allah. Say: "But name them! Is it that ye will inform Him of something He knoweth not on earth or is it (just) a show of words?" Nay! to those who believe not their pretence seems pleasing but they are kept back (thereby) from the Path: and those whom Allah leaves to stray no one can guide.

Transliteration Afaman huwa qa_'imun 'ala_ kulli nafsim bima_ kasabat, wa ja'ala_ lilla_hi syuraka_'(a), qul sammu_hum, am tunabbi'u_nahu_ bima_ la_ ya'lamu fil ardi am bi za_hirim minal qaul(i), bal zuyyina lillazina kafaru_ makruhum wa suddu_ 'anis sabil(i), wa may yudlilillu_hu famu_ laha_ min ha_d(in).

Ayah 34

Yusuf Ali For them is a Penalty in the life of this world but harder truly is the Penalty of the Hereafter; and defender have they none against Allah.

Transliteration Lahum 'aza_bun fil haya_tid dunya_ wa la'aza_bul a_khirati asyaqq(u), wa ma_ lahum minall_hi miw wa_q(in).

Ayah 35

Yusuf Ali The parable of the Garden which the righteous are promised! beneath it flow rivers: perpetual is the enjoyment thereof and the shade therein: such is the End of the Righteous; and the End of Unbelievers is the Fire.

Transliteration Masalul jannatil lati wu'idal muttaqu_n(a), tajri min tahtihal anha_r(u), ukuluha_ da_'imuw wa zilluha_, tilka 'uqbal lazina-ttaqaw, wa 'uqbal ka_firinan na_r(u).

Ayah 36

Yusuf Ali Those to whom We have given the Book rejoice at what hath been revealed unto thee: but there are among the clans those who reject a part thereof. Say: "I am commanded to worship Allah and not to join partners with Him. Unto Him do I call and unto Him is my return."

Transliteration Wallazina a_taina_humul kita_ba yafrahu_na bima_ unzila ilaika wa minal ahza_bi may yunkiru ba'dah(u_), qul innama_ umirtu an a'budalla_ha wa la_ usyrika bih(i), ilaihi ad'u_ wa ilaihi ma'a_b(i).

Ayah 37

Yusuf Ali Thus have We revealed it to be a judgment of authority in Arabic. Wert thou to follow their (vain) desires after the knowledge which hath reached thee then wouldst thou find neither protector nor defender against Allah.

Transliteration Wa kaza_lika anzalna_hu hukman 'arabiyya_(n), wa la'in-ittaba'ta ahwa_'ahum ba'da ma_ ja_'aka minal 'ilm(i), ma_ laka minalla_hi miw waliyyiw wa la_ wa_q(in).


Notes

1849 Cf. vi. 10. (13.32)

1850 The punishment was in many cases deferred. But when it did come, how terrible and exemplary it was! (13.32)

1851 Cf. xii. 40. 'You have but to name your false gods, and you will see that they are nothing but names. There is no reality behind them, whereas Allah is the One great Reality. He penetrates everything through and through and knows all things. Do you dare to tell Him of something on earth that He does not know? Or is it just a trick or a show of words? (13.33)

1852 All pretences and fancies seem attractive to their inventors, but alas! They are a great obstruction to the Path of Religion and Truth. However, if by their contumacy, they have cut themselves off from Allah's grace, who can guide them or reclaim them from their errors? (13.33)

1853 The consequences of sin may be felt in this life itself, but they are nothing compared to the final penalties in the life to come. (13.34)

1854 For the comprehensive meaning of the root akala (literally "to eat"), see v. 66, n. 776. In its derived meaning it means fruit and enjoyment of all kinds, spiritual as well as other. The joys of heaven are not like the joys of the earth, which fade away or cloy. The joys of heaven are pure, lasting, and without any of the drawbacks which we associate with the joys of the sense. (13.35)

1855 Zillun: literally shade, hence, shelter, protection, security. All these meanings are implied. Shade is one of the delights of a garden. Cf. iv. 57 and n. 579. (13.35)

1856 In this, as in other places, the Fire is contrasted with the Garden, as Misery is contrasted with Bliss. We can also imagine other incidents in contrast with those of the Garden, e.g., with the Fire will be drought, aridity, thirst, instead of beautiful rivers; pain and suffering, instead of perpetual delight; no protection against the fierceness of the heat, as contrasted with the cool shades ever deepening as you proceed in the Garden. (13.35)

1857 The Book: in a general sense, Revelation. "Those to whom the Book hath been given" are both (1) the People of the Book of previous revelations, who study the new Revelation in Arabic without prejudice and find in it confirmation of what their ancestors had received and believed in it, and (2) the Muslims who receive the Qur-an with such joy. (13.36)

1858 Ahzab (plural of hizb = parties, sects, troops, clans. The reference may be to the clans mentioned in xxx. 20 and 22 (that whole Sura is called Ahzab). But we can understand it in a perfectly general sense. Among all sections of the people there are persons who would receive a portion of Allah's truth but reject whatever does not suit them or fall in with their selfish aims or vain desires. The proper answer to them is: Surely, Allah's command is universal,-to worship and serve Him and refuse to bend the knee to any other; the man of God finds his staff and support in it; but he must invite all to share in its blessings; it came from Allah, and to Allah shall we all return. (13.36)

1859 The Qur-an is in Arabic; therefore the Arabs, among whom it was promulgated, could have no difficulty in understanding its precepts and using it in judging of right and wrong in all their affairs. But it is also universal; therefore no one should give preference to his own vain fancies against this authoritative declaration. (13.37)

1860 Cf. ii. 120. The variation is in the single word "Waq" here in place of "Nasir" in ii. 120. In each case the apt word is chosen not only for the rhythm in its own passage but for the general meaning in the Argument. (13.37)


Holy Quran Surah 13 Al Rad (The Thunder)

Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Quran in English Language by A.Yusuf Ali

38 We did send apostles before thee and appointed for them wives and children: and it was never the part of an apostle to bring a Sign except as Allah permitted (or commanded). For each period is a Book (revealed). 186118621863

39 Allah doth blot out or confirm what He pleaseth: with Him is the Mother of the Book. 1864

40 Whether We shall show thee (within thy lifetime) part of what We promised them or take to Ourselves thy soul (before it is all accomplished) thy duty is to (make the Message) reach them: it is Our part to call them to account.

41 See they not that We gradually reduce the land (in their control) from its outlying borders? (Where) Allah commands there is none to put back His command: and He is swift in calling to account. 1865

42 Those before them did (also) devise plots; but in all things the master planning is Allah's. He knoweth the doings of every soul: and soon will the Unbelievers know who gets home in the End. 1866

43 The Unbelievers say: "No apostle art thou." Say: "Enough for a witness between me and you is Allah and such as have knowledge of the Book." 18671868


Transliteration

Ayah 38

Yusuf Ali We did send apostles before thee and appointed for them wives and children: and it was never the part of an apostle to bring a Sign except as Allah permitted (or commanded). For each period is a Book (revealed).

Transliteration Wa laqad arsalna_ rusulam min qablika wa ja'alna_ lahum azwa_jaw wa zurriyyah(tan), wa ma_ ka_na li rasu_lin ay ya'tiya bi a_yatin illa_ bi iznilla_h(i), likulli ajalin kita_b(un).

Ayah 39

Yusuf Ali Allah doth blot out or confirm what He pleaseth: with Him is the Mother of the Book.

Transliteration Yamhulla_hu ma_ yasya_'u wa yusbit(u), wa 'indahu_ ummul kita_b(i).

Ayah 40

Yusuf Ali Whether We shall show thee (within thy lifetime) part of what We promised them or take to Ourselves thy soul (before it is all accomplished) thy duty is to (make the Message) reach them: it is Our part to call them to account.

Transliteration Wa imma_ nuriyannaka ba'dal lazi na'iduhum au natawaffayannaka fa innama_ 'alaikal bala_gu wa 'alainal hisa_b(u).

Ayah 41

Yusuf Ali See they not that We gradually reduce the land (in their control) from its outlying borders? (Where) Allah commands there is none to put back His command: and He is swift in calling to account.

Transliteration Awalam yarau anna_ na'til arda nanqusuha_ min atra_fiha_, walla_hu yahkumu la_ mu'aqqiba li hukmih(i), wa huwa sari'ul hisa_b(i).

Ayah 42

Yusuf Ali Those before them did (also) devise plots; but in all things the master planning is Allah's. He knoweth the doings of every soul: and soon will the Unbelievers know who gets home in the End.

Transliteration Wa qad makaral lazina min qablihim fa lilla_hil makru jami'a_(n), ya'lamu ma_ taksibu kullu nafs(in), wa saya'lamul kuffa_ru liman 'uqbad da_r(i).

Ayah 43

Yusuf Ali The Unbelievers say: "No apostle art thou." Say: "Enough for a witness between me and you is Allah and such as have knowledge of the Book."

Transliteration Wa yaqu_lul lazina kafaru_ lasta mursala_(n), qul kafu_ billa_hi syahidam baini wa bainakum, wa man 'indahu_ 'ilmul kita_b(i).


Notes

1861 All the Prophets of whom we have any detailed knowledge, except one, had wives and children. The exception is Jesus the son of Mary. But his life was incomplete; his ministry barely lasted three years; his mission was limited; and he was not called upon to deal with the many-sided problems that arise in a highly organised society or State. We pay equal respect to him, because he was Allah's Messenger; but that is not to say that his Message covers the same universal ground as that of Al-Mustafa. There is no reproach for a normal human being if he lives a normal human life; there is glory if he beautifies it and sets a nobler example of virtue than other men, as did Al-Mustafa. (13.38)

1862 No Prophet performed any Miracle or showed forth any "Signs," except as Allah willed. Allah's Will (Mashiyat) is an all-wise, universal Plan, which is not formed for the benefit of one tribe or millat or of one age or country (see also next verse). The greatest Miracle in history was and is the Qur-an. We can apprehend its beauty and grandeur today as much as did the people of Al-Mustafa's day,-even more, as our collective knowledge of nature and of Allah's creation has increased. (13.38)

1863 Kitab: means "a Law decreed" or "a Decree established." (13.38)

1864 Umm-ul-Kitab: Mother of the Book: the original foundation of all revelation; the Essence of Allah's Will and Law. Cf. iii. 7, and n. 347. (13.39)

1865 In the Prophet's ministry at Makkah, the most stiff-necked opposition came from the seat and centre of power in Makkah. The humbler people-the fringe of Makkan society-came in readily, as also did some tribes round about Makkah. After the Hijrat there was a hard struggle between Makkah and Madinah and at last the bloodless conquest of Makkah in A.H. 8 made the Pagan structure finally collapse, though it had already been sapped to its foundations. So, generally, Truth finds easiest entrance through the humble and lowly, and not in the beginning at the headquarters of power, but in the fulness of time it makes its way everywhere with irresistible force. (13.41)

1866 Cf. iii. 54 and n. 393. (13.42)

1867 The enemies of Islam have to acknowledge that Al-Mustafawas a great and noble character, but they deny his Prophethood. He could point to his credentials from Allah in the work which he achieved, and the Qur-an which he brought. (13.43)

1868 That is, those who have knowledge of revelation generally will recognise Allah's revelation in the holy Qur-an. An alternative reading is "min 'indi-hi", which is written the same in Arabic, with only three vowel points different. If we adopt that, the last clause will be: "and from Him is (all) knowledge of the Book": i.e., 'as all knowledge of the Book comes from Allah, the Qur-an also bears witness to me'. (13.43)

 


End of Surah Ar-Rad